Monday, December 31, 2012


College of Law, Government and International Studies
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Gfpa 2033 Modern World History
Dr K Nadaraja

Chapter 1                  The Beginning of the Modern Era 1400-1600 Renaissance in Europe
The Italian Renaissance and the Northern Renaissance
The Renaissance and its contributions to mankind
Chapter 2                  The Reformation Movement in Europe
                        The break-up of the church into Catholic and Protestant groups
Its effect on the political and social fabric of Europe
Chapter 3                  Voyages of Exploration and Discovery of new land
Discovery of the sea-route to the east by the Portuguese
The Spanish voyages across the Atlantic
Chapter 4                  The Industrial Revolution in Europe 1760-1850
                        From hand-made to machine-made goods
                  Construction of canals and roads and other modes of communication. Why Industrial Revolution began in England.
The positive and negative effects of the Industrial Revolution on society
Chapter 5                  The American War of Independence 1775-1783
                        The causes, events and effects of the war

Chapter 6                  The French Revolution of 1789
                        The causes, events and effects of the war
                        Rise of Nationalism
Chapter 7                  The Napoleonic Wars
                        The rise of Napoleon and his conquest of Europe
Its effect on Europe
Chapter 8                  Western Imperialism of Asia in the 17th and the 18th century
Reason for western imperialism of Asia
Its implication on the history of Asia
Chapter 9                  The First World War 1914-1918
                        Causes, events and effects of the war in Europe
Paris peace conference of 1919
Chapter 10   The Second World War 1939-1945
                        Causes, events and effects of the war in Europe and Asia
                        Its implication in Europe and Asia
Chapter 11   The Cold War 1945-1990
The sources of the Cold War, Political Economic and Ideological differences between Democracy and Communism
The rise of United States and Soviet Union as world powers

©     Renaissance is a French word meaning ‘rebirth’, when men began to resume a civilization like that of the Greco-Romans
©     Began in about the middle of the 14th Century and lasted to about the 16th Century
©     Began in Florence in Italy, then spread to the rest of Europe
©     Renaissance was a combination of a social, economic, religious, scientific, artistic and philosophical movement
©     Well known for its artistic achievements
©     Materialism, secularism and human achievement (humanistic) became the main features of the renaissance
Italian/Southern Renaissance
©     With trade converging in the Mediterranean, the Italian towns of the Florence, Venice, Genoa and Milan became bustling towns of Europe
©     Merchants made fortunes in trade and commerce and they lent their money to the Pope and Princes
©     Some became bankers, held public office and conducted the affairs of the state. Florence was a good example
©     The Medici family decedents of merchants, controlled Florence
©     The founder of this family was Giovanni who became a banker in Florence
©     His son, Cosimo de Medici become the unofficial ruler of Florence
©     Cosimo’s grandson, Lorenzo ‘The Magnificent’ 1449-1492 not only used his wealth to govern the city, but he is best remembered as a poet, connoisseur
©     Patron of art and learning
©     The Medici Family continued to command in Florence until about 1737
©     Family members became Popes and two women became queens of Florence
©     One important aspects of Renaissance was in Literary works or humanism
©     There was rising interest in writing in theology, philosophy, law, history and other information about the world
©     Great hymns and songs were composed and plays performed
©     A class of men devoted their life to writing about life, general problems and used works to achieve artistic effects or simply to amuse readers
©     The Italian humanists wrote both in Latin and Italian
©     Francesco Petrarca from Florence has been called the first man of letters. Although trained a lawer. He spent his life travelling throughout France and Italy writing
©     Boccacio also a Florentine wrote ‘Decameron’ in Italian. It was a series of tales designed to entertain and impart wisdom
©     Another Florentine named Bruni wrote the history of Florence
©     Italian humanism contributed much to literature and classical learning and the formation of modern languages
©     It’s impact was felt all over Europe
©     The middle class constituted professionals- Bankers, Merchants, Accountants etc. who needed special knowledge in certain branches of study
©     Reading became the most popular leisure among this class of people
©     There was greater interest in inquiry
©     Niccolo Machiavelli wrote ‘The Prince’ in 1513. It was on effective rulers and government
Art, Painting/Sculpture
©     The renaissance also marked an advancement in art, painting, music and sculpture
©     They emphasized on humanistic ideas as opposed to biblical figures
©     The great artist, Leonardo Da Vinci painted ‘Mona Lisa’ and ‘Last Supper’
©     Michelangelo was an architect and artist. St. peters church in Rome was design by him
Northern Renaissance
©     The northern renaissance involved other countries in Europe
©     The northern renaissance was a blend of old and new
©     An important northern humanist was the Dutch Desiderius Erasmus (1465-1536) who wrote the Bible in the Greek language. He also wrote ‘ Praise of Folly’ and ‘Christian Knight’
©     Thomas More of England (1478-1543) wrote ‘Utopia’. It’s about an ideal system of political and social structure and freedom of religion
©     Another famous Englishman was William Shakespeare. He wrote numerous books and plays
Other inventions
©     The German Copernicus (1473-1543) believed that the earth moved round the sun
©     Another German Johann Gutenberg invented the printing machine in1447. This helped to spread knowledge fast
©     Europe best known cartographers were also Germans. Behaim and Schemer drew world map
©     Another important development that took place during the renaissance period was the reformation
©     This was essentially a movement to reform the Christian religion
©     This led to the breakup of the Christian religion into two-Roman Catholic and Protestant

Chapter 2                  The Reformation Movement in Europe
©     Reformation was a movement to reform the Christian religion in Europe
©     Took place between 1510-1550
©     Men began to question the practices and administration of the Catholic Church
©     This led to the breakup of the church into 2 groups - Roman Catholic and Protestants
©     The Protestants came up with their own teachings and practices
©     There were 3 groups of people who were against the Catholic Church
a)    The ordinary people who were dissatisfied with the administration of the church and who saw the Bishops and Abbots as part of a wealthy oppressive ruling class
b)    The educated middle class in various European cities who felt they could manage the affairs of their cities. They felt that the church hierarchy was feudal
c)     There were Kings and Princes who had long disputed the powers of the church on matters of property, taxes, legal jurisdiction and political influence
©     These rulers wanted to be masters of their own land and free from any interference from the church

Martin Luther
©     Reformation movement was started by Martin Luther, a priest and professor from Wittenberg University, Germany
©     He asked Christians to follow the teachings of Christ as found in the Bible and not follow blindly the instructions of the church
©     He believed that every man should decide for himself what was right and  wrong
©     That the Pope had no right to be head of the church
©     He asked his followers to challenge the excesses of the church- especially on ‘indulgences’
©     Luther posted 97 thesis (abuses) at the church at Wittenberg
©     Luther was branded an heretic and excommunicated in 1521
©     The Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V (1519-1556) was afraid that if Luther upset the Roman Church, he would upset the Holy Roman Empire
©     But Luther won the support of the people in Germany. By the time of his death in 1546, many states in Germany had turned ‘Protestant’
©     His ideas spread all over Europe (Switzerland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden)
©     His breakaway group came to be known as the Lutherans
©     Luther’s church was governed by Bishops, each looking after a ‘diocese’
John Calvin
©     John Calvin was a French man, a trained priest and lawyer. He fled to Switzerland to practice his teachings
©     Kelvin like Luther insisted that trough Christian should follow the bible
©     He urged his followers to work hard and earn their living through honest ways
©     Kelvin rejected the institution of the bishops/priests as practiced by the Catholics, Lutherans or Anglicans
©     He insisted that their church be administered by presbyters (elders)
©     Their church came to be known as the Presbyterian church
©     His ideas spread to Hungary, Poland and Bohemia and Scotland

Reformation in England 
©     In England, the king took advantage of the reformation movement to free his country from control of the roman Catholic church
©     King HenryVIII (1509-1547) wanted to divorce his wife Catherine (as he had no male heir)
©      When the pope refused him permission, he called the Parliament to pass the ‘Act of Supremacy’ which declared him ad head of the church of England
©     All his subjects were asked to acknowledge the king as head of the church and not the Pope
©     Henry closed all the monasteries in England and seized all land belonging to the Roman Catholic church
©     By 1560, the protestant movement had been affirmed
©     The unity of the Roman Catholic church (Latin Christendom) had been broken
©     Although the Protestants differed in many ways but they also had many things in common. All rejected papal authority
©     The reformation movement had a profound effect on the European society
©     All protestant clergy could marry
©     Protestant churches replaced Latin with the vernacular Languages
©     All protestants gave up their obligatory confessions
©     All declared the one true source of the Christian belief was the Bible

Chapter 3                  Voyages of Exploration and Discovery of new land
Voyages of Exploration and Discovery
©     Roughly period between 1450-1650 has been describe as the age of exploration and discovery
©     Countries involved – Portugal, Spain, Holland, France and England
Reasons for Exploration
©     Eastern trade monopolized by Arab and Italian traders
©     Development of capitalism
©     Competition among European countries to control trade
©     Fall of Constantinople to the Muslim Turks
©     Support from the government
©     To spread Christianity
The Portuguese Expeditions
©     Portuguese – first to find a new sea-route to the east
©     Expeditions were sponsored by Henry – ‘Henry the Navigator’. Established a naval research centre at Sagres to train navigator, sailors, geographers and ship builders
©     In 1460, Portuguese had reached Sierra Leons. In 1488, Bartholomew Diaz reached the southern tip of Africa called ‘The Cape of Good Hope’
©     In 1498, Vasco da Gama reached Calicut in India
©     In 1510, Alfonso D’ Albuquerque made Goa in India the Portuguese headquarters
©     In 1511, he captured Malacca
©     From Malacca, they established trading posts at Moluccas and at Macau
©     In 1500, Pedro Cabral discovered Brazil
The Spanish Expeditions
©     In 1492, Christopher Columbus an Italian sailed across the Atlantic Ocean and discovered America
©     He was supported by Queen Isabella I of Spain
©     He landed at San Salvador, discovered Cuba then Hispaniola (Haiti). Later he discovered Jamaica and South America
©     Between 1513-1531, the Spanish sent expeditions to Florida, Mexico and Peru
©     Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese discovered a new sea-route by sailing round Cape horn in south America, crossed the Pacific Ocean and reached Philippines in1521
©     He was in the Services of the Spanish King Charles I (1516-1556)
©     He was killed by the natives but his sailors returned to Spain by sailing round South Africa
The Dutch Expeditions
©     The Dutch decided to go to the east when Lisbon was closed to the Dutch ships
©     In 1602, the government formed the Dutch East India Company (VOC) with the aim of securing eastern trade
©     Dutch occupied Betawi in 1719and from there took control of the numerous islands
©     They monopolizes the spice trade of the east indies
©     In1621, the Dutch West India Company was formed
©     Several island like St. Martin and part of Guyana became Dutch colonies
The French Expeditions
©     In 1608, the French established a colony in North America, now called Quebec. The formed a company to trade in wool
©     In 1612, they established a trading post at Montreal, and later at Detroit, St. Louis and New Orleans
©     In the West Indies trading posts were opened at Haiti and Martinique
©     In 1664, the French east india company was formed to trade with the east
©     In 1674, they opened trading posts at Pondicherry and Chandernagore in India
©     Competition fron the English led to several wars in the 18th Century
©     This forced the France to withdrew from India

The English Expeditions
©     In 1497, John Cabot discovered new found land in North America
©     Queen Elizabeth I (1533-1603) ordered Francis Drake, John Hawkins and Walter Raleigh to seize Spanish colonies in the West Indies
©     Francis Drake was the first Englishman to sail around the world. He began in 1577 and returned in 1580
©     In the 18th century, the English had established several colonies in north America
©     By 1733, the English had 13 colonies on the Atlantic Coast of north America
©     By 1776, the colonies became independent of England. This led them to look for land in the east
©     They established their East India Company and succeeded in establishing territories in India, Burma, Malay States and North Borneo
How they benefitted
©     Increase in knowledge, especially in geography
©     Increase in international trade
©     Trade become more complex
©     Competition for land colonization
©     Spread of European culture and religion

Chapter 4                  The Industrial Revolution in Europe 1760-1850
Industrial Revolution 1760-1850
©     Process of shifting from hand tools to power machinery to cultivate crops and manufacture goods
©     Industrial revolution began first in England in the middle of the 18th century and continued through the 19th century in Europe
©     Industrial revolution began with new methods of cultivation of crops (agricultural revolution). Then modern methods of manufacturing goods (mechanical revolution)
©     The agricultural and mechanical revolution together created a situation which changed the condition of towns, land, workers, businesses and even governments
©     These developments transferred a largely rural population from making a living from agricultural to a town-centered society engaged in manufacture
©     Agricultural revolution and mechanical revolution together called Industrial Revolution
Agricultural Revolution
©     Changes in methods of cultivation of crops to increase production for commercial purposes
©     Mixed farming – where crops and animals were kept on same field
©     Rotation farming – introduced by Townshend. By this, different crops were grown on different land and rotated every season. This ensured fertility of soil
©     A German named Thaer introduced chemical manure to restore soil fertility and increased production
©     Bakewell (England) and Mascagni (Italy) made experiments in breeding cattle and sheep to get better yield
©     In the 18th century, drills for sowing seed and machine for threshing were invented

Mechanical Revolution
©     Many new machines were invented during the 18th century
©     Early inventions were related to cloth manufacture in 1733, John Kay invented ‘The Flying Shuttle’ to weave cloth
©     In 1764, James Hargreaves invented the ‘Spinning Jenny’ for making thread
©     In 1767, Richard Arkwright invented the ‘Water Frame’
©     In 1779, Samuel Crompton invented the ‘Spinning Mule’
©     In 1785, Edward Cartwright invented the ‘Power Loom’
©     Use of machinery increased production and export of cloth. These machines produces cotton so much faster and better and it began to be used with wool and other textiles. What was needed was more power
©     In 1769, James Watt invented the steam engine. By end of the 18th century, steam power began to be used in other industries
©     With the use of steam power machines had to be set up in factories
©     There was an increase in the use of iron
©     Workers who were so used to working from home had to be brought to factories located in towns to work
©     Clothes and machines cannot be carried from town to town without good transport
©     England had a few canals by the middle of the 18th century, but were not suitable
©     James Brindley built a network of first canal in 1759-1761 between Worsely and Manchester
©     The Grand Trunk canal between Trent and Mersey and Staffordshire and Worcestershire
©     Canal between Trent and Severn were also built by him
©     In all Brindley built over 350 miles of canals
©     Canals were not enough. English roads were rutty and not safe for carriages. France had fairly good roads
©     Beginning of the 19th century, road transport was improved by 2 Scottish Engineers
©     Thomas Telford was best known for planning roads and building bridges
©     Macadam was famous for surfacing roads by using stones
©     The first train was invented by George Stephenson in 1829. It was called ‘The Rocket’. First train services in England was between Liverpool and Manchester
©     In the United States in 1832, Samuel Morse invented the telegraph system. In 1844, telegraph services began between Washington and Baltimore
©     In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone
Why Industrial Revolution began in England
©     Agricultural revolution was the forerunner to industrial revolution
©     England had suitable land for agriculture
©     Coal, iron ore and other natural resources were a plenty in England
©     Increase in population by about 50% between 1750-1801
©     Support from government with regard to land ownership, construction of roads and canals. There was also political stability
©     Inventors were given patent rights
Positive effects of the Industrial Revolution
©     Increased in the production of goods for export
©     Great profits were made. Prosperity
©     Job specialization
©     Emergence of towns and cities as commercial centers. Banks, insurance, shipping agencies, shops etc.
©     Emergence of capitalist society
Negative effects of the Industrial Revolution
©     Home industries suffered
©     Migration of workers from rural to urban center’s
©     Social problems among urban workers – health, housing etc
©     Exploitation of workers. Long working hours. Low pay. Child labor
©     Work sites unhealthy and unsafe

Chapter 5                  The American War of Independence 1775-1783
American War of Independence (1775-1783)
©     In 1607, a group of Englishman landed at Virginia as settlers
©      In 1620, the pilgrim Father’s started another colony at Plymouth
©     Later, new colonies were opened up at Maryland and Massachusetts
©     The northern colonies were collectively called New England
©     Other Europeans countries also established territories in America
©     The Dutch had a colony called New Netherlands or New Holland and their chief town was called New Amsterdam (New York)
©     In 1604, some Frenchmen had settled in the north at a place called Quebec (Canada)
©     By 1733, there were 13 English colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America
©     They were prosperous colonies growing tobacco and cotton
©     All 13 states were independent of one another – had own leader and assembly and obeyed English Law
Reasons for War of Independence
©     They les trouble with the English Laws especially the Navigation Act (Old Laws)
©     By these laws, they had to send their goods to England first and in English Ship only. This restricted their trades
©     King George III of England made the settlers pay for upkeep English troops in the colonies (Seven-Years War)
©     Stamp Act of 1765. By this law, they had to pay a certain tax on all legal documents by fixing a stamp on them
©     The people protested saying they cannot taxed unless they were represented in English Parliament (No taxation without representation)
©     Tea Act of 1773. Tea, an important item of trade and a favorite drink. By this law, the English East India Company was given the monopoly to sell tea to the colonists. The colony traders must buy tea only from East India Company
©     “Boston Tea Party’ on 16 December 1773
©     In 1774, Boston harbor was closed and troops stationed in the colony
Events of the War
©     6 July 1775, colonies under George Washington declared war on England
©     On 4 July 1776, they issued the Declaration of Independence
©     Thomas Jefferson helped drafting the declaration
©     It contained John Locke’s idea about good government
©     War was also influenced by the writings of American, Thomas Pains ‘Common Sense’
©     In1777, British General Burgoyne forced to surrender with his troops at Saratoga
©     In 1778 France agreed to support Americans in their struggle for independence
©     Spain and Holland joined later
©     Soon, British last command at the sea
©     In 1781, British General Cornwallis was forced to surrender at Yorktown
©     British signed the Treaty of Versailles in 1783 which ended the war
©     Britain was forced to grant the Americans their independence
©     United states came into existence
©     George Washington was chosen as its first President in 1789
©     It was a Federation with the Congress responsible for all 13 states
©     Britain lost one half of her empire
©     War influenced other countries

Chapter 6
The French Revolution of 1789
French Revolution 1789
©     Important event in history of Europe
©     Ended feudalism
©     Ended influence of church on government
©     Dividing line between old era and new era in Europe
Causes of French Revolution
©     Structure of the French society
©     Government of King Louis XVI weak
©     Economic crisis 1787-1797
©     Enlightenment/Intellectual movement – Voltaire, Montesquieu, Diderot, Rousseau
©     Influence of the American War of Independence
©     Immediate cause
The Structure of the French Society
©     Society divided into 3 Estates: First Estate, Second Estate and Third Estate
©     First Estate was made up of those connected with the church – Bishops and Priests
©     They were rich and powerful, owned land and property and controlled the institutions of the government
©     Population of France was about 23 million and the First Estate was made up less than 100,000 people
©     The Second Estate was made up of nobles and lords (400,000). In the earlier times, France was made up of several small districts, each under lords/nobles
©     Later when it became united under a single kingdom, these lords and nobles were given titles and land and were involved in the government. 3/5 of the land was under their control. They paid no tax
©     Third Estate – all those who did not belong to the First Estate and Second Estate were classified under the Third Estate
©     Peasants, farmers, tradesmen, businessmen and professionals like teachers, lawyers, doctors and others
©     Members of the third estate had to pay tax but had no political rights. The poor suffered
Government of King Louis XVI Weak
©     Louis XVI became King in 1774. He was weak, despotic and could not control his advisors. His wife Marie Antoinette was dislike by the people
©     The King even claimed ‘the state is myself’. He abused his power by arresting and imprisoning those who went against him
Economic Crisis 1787-1797
©     Although the economics of the country was generally good but there were periods of severe economic crisis, especially between 1787-1797, when harvest was poor, causing shortage of food, price of flour increased many-fold and this affected farmers badly
©     Nobles experienced cash-flow problem. So they taxed the peasants even more
Enlightenment/Intellectual Movement (1770-1790)
©     The spread of new ideas by the intellectual movement
©     Voltaire (1694-1778) his book ‘Philosophical Letters’ (1733) which upheld the principle of freedom to think, talk, religion and government based on laws
©     Montesquieu (1689-1755) wrote ‘The Spirit of the Laws’ (1748) believed that the freedom of the people could be assured by limiting the powers of the government through laws
©     His famous doctrine is the Doctrine on the ‘Separation of Powers’ – Legislative, Executive and Judiciary
©     Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) his ideas on Government is found in his book ‘The Social Contract’ (1762)
©     He stressed the government should be based on the will of the people. The government must fulfill its contract with the people. If they fail the people have right to replace it
©     All this philosophers became an inspiration to the people
Influence of the American War of Independence (1775-1783)
©     French Revolution was also inspired by the American War of Independence
©     One of the leader of the French Revolution was Marquis de Lafayette who had taken part in the American War against the English
©     Other French soldiers who were also inspired by the democratic ideas advocates by the Americans
Immediate Cause
©     Financial crisis, King wanted nobles (Second Estate) to pay tax
©     New Parliament met on 5th May 1789
©     Third Estate who represented 95% of the population unhappy with voting system
©     17th June 1789, members from the Third Estate formed the National Assembly
©     20th June 1789, members of National Assembly took oath from the tennis court – Tennis Court Oath
©     King Louis XVI tried to suppress the assembly. Demonstrations and riots broke out in Paris
Events of the Revolution
©     14thJuly 1789, revolutionaries storm Bastille
©     Revolutionaries form government in Paris
©     Form army – National guard under Lafayette
©     Feudal system, tax to church abolished
©     26th August 1789, National Assembly approved ‘Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen’
©     Nobles fled France (émigrés) King and Queen jailed
©     Other European countries threatened by the developments in France
©     September 1792, France declare a Republic
©     Government under the Jacobins, leader Robespierre and Reign of Terror ends
©     In October 1794, government under Directory
Effects of the Revolution
©     Ended feudal system, peasant free, could own land
©     Privileges enjoyed by nobles, priests and church abolished
©     France became a Republic based on written Constitution
©     United with strong feelings of Nationalism
©     Revolution threatened the rest of Europe

Chapter 7                  The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Bonaparte (1769-1821)
©     Napoleon Bonaparte was France’s greatest National
©     Hero. He brought much of Europe under his rule. Introduced many political and legal reforms to the country
©     He was born in Corsica in 1769
©     He was an Italian but became a French
©     Went to a French military college and became an officer in 1785
©     Became prominent during the French Revolution
©     In 1795, he help to end the “Reign of Terror’
©     In 1799 he seized power and introduced a consul system of government with himself as the first consul in 1802
©     Had power to appoint members of the legislative assembly, make laws and declare war. Became emperor in 1804
Napoleon’s War with Europe
©     Since the French Revolution, France had been at war with Austria, Prussia, England, Holland and Spain
©     Between 1796-1805, Napoleon conquered and made treaties with several countries
©     War with Austria started in 1792 at Lodi, Arcola and Rivoli but signed peace treaty at Campo Formio in 1797
©     Again in 1800 after the battle of Marengo and in 1805 at Austerlitz, Austria was forced to sign treaties
©     In 1793, Napoleon prevented the English form controlling the French port of Toulon
©     France also threatened England’s trade by controlling important port of Antwerp, Rotterdam and Amsterdam
©     In 1798, Napoleon conquered Egypt then Syria. French were beaten by the British Admiral Nelson at the Battle of the Nile
©     In 1800, he invaded Germany and in 1806, he overthrew the government of Prussia
©     The French were once again beaten by Admiral Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805
©     Napoleon became emperor over half of Europe
©     He appointed his brother Louis as King of Holland and another brother Joseph as King of Spain and his brother in law as King of Naples
©     The people of these conquered countries wanted to free themselves from Napoleon’s rule.
©     In 1812, Napoleon took 600,000 troops to invade Russia. Only 20,000 returned in 1813
©     In 1814, Austria, Russia, Prussia and England attacked France. Napoleon was captured and exiled to the Italian island of Elba, but he escape and reappeared in France
©     He was finally defeated at the Battle of Waterloo by the English in 1815
©     He was once again exiled to St. Helena where he died in 1821
Treaty of Vienna
©     Napoleonic wars ended with the Treaty of Vienna in 1815
©     Elder brother of Louis XVI was made King Louis XVIII
©     The treaty was meant to restore countries in Europe to conditions before the Napoleon’s Conquest
Napoleonic’s Reform
©     In 1801, Napoleon made an agreement with the Pope called The Concordat
©     By this, the clergy became the servants of the state. But they could take instructions from the Pope on religious matters
©     In 1804, he introduced the Code of Napoleon, a form of standard laws for whole of France
©     These laws uphold basic rights of individuals (everyone was equal under law, freedom of religious, safety to property, rights of women etc.)
©     Code of Napoleon was also introduced to countries under French rule – Italy, German, Holland, Spain and others
©     Centralization of government Napoleon centralized the government by dividing the country into administrative departments each under a prefect and each township and its own mayor
©     All appointments were made by Napoleon. These appointed had to answer to Napoleon
©     Government posts were no more confined to Nobles, but open to all citizen, irrespective of social status
©     Ended feudal tax collected by church and limited the powers of the church
©     Built schools called Lycees, technical schools and the university of Paris
©     Encourage business organization and built the Bank of France
©     Gave France and other countries democratic and nationalist aspirations

Chapter 8                  Western Imperialism of Asia in the 17th and the 18th century
Western Imperialism of Asia
©     Imperialism/colonialism (19th Century) is explained as the government/control of a country by another
©     Extension of the authority of one country over another
©     Carried out by conquest, treaties for political and economic reasons
©     Imperialism has long story
©     Modern form of imperialism started when European powers discovered new land in the 15th and 16th Centuries
©     There are many forms of imperialism: Colonies, Protectorates, Spheres Of Influence
©     Western imperialism spread fast to Africa and Asia after 1870s
©     Between 1880-1914 almost all of Africa (except Ethiopia and Liberia) were under either French, British, Portuguese, German, Italian, Spanish or Belgium powers
©     In Asia, all countries except Thailand was under colonial rule
©     India, Burma, Malaya + Sabah and Sarawak, Hong Kong (British)
©     Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos (French)
©     East Indies/Indonesia (Dutch)
©     Philippines (Spanish/Americans)
Reasons for Western Imperialism of Asia
1)    Economic
©     Economic – most important reason. Following Industrial Revolution in Europe, there was demand for raw materials – tin, rubber, timber, cotton, petroleum etc. to service the factories & industries in West
©     They were found in Asia and could be got cheap
©     They were needed to make cloth, tin-sheets, tires etc.
©     In order to obtain these I continuous supply, Europeans invested huge sum of capital in setting up mines, factories, plantations, road, railroads, refineries, steamships, banks and trading houses
©     European countries therefore had huge financial investment in Enterprises outside their own countries
©     All these investments needed protection and one way is by imperialism
©     Critics have condemned this. To Lenin, ‘imperialism is the highest stage of capitalism’
©     Another economic factor is colonies could be made regular market for European finished goods
©     Following industrial revolution, several countries in Europe became rich and had surplus capital
©     Money invested in this ‘back-ward countries’ brought in higher rate of returns than invested in their own countries
Colonies For Political And Strategic Reasons
©     Because of economic and political rivalry between Europe powers, some countries did not want their colonies to fall into the hands of their enemies. Example, it was fear of French expansion in Burma that forced the British to follow an aggressive policy of annexation of Burma
©     British feared if French annexed Burma, British interest in India would be affected
©     It was international prestige and pride for western countries to have colonies
©     A French reporter once said ‘there has never been a great power without great colonies’

2)    Advancement In Technology
©     The advancement in science and technology helped in speeding imperialism
©     There was great advancement in shipping & communication in early 19th Century which, made transportation of goods cheaper and faster
©     Telegraph services enabled quick business transaction
©     Opening up of Suez Canal in 1869, reduced distance between Europe and Asia, thereby reducing transportation costs of goods

3)    Increase In Population
©     Population of Europe had doubled between 1750-1850. This caused pressure on land and jobs
©     Some nationalist advocates conquest of land to ease population congestion
©     Led many European to immigrate to US, Australia & New Zealand
©     More than 60 million believed to have left Europe 1815-1932 to settle in colonies

4)    Civilizing Non-Western World
©     Some westerners took upon themselves the responsibility of civilizing the non-western world
©     This was based on the assumption that they were more advanced in Science and Technology than those in Asia and Africa
©     English considered this as ‘White Man’s Burden’
©     French - ‘Civilizing Mission’
©     German - ‘Kultur’
©     Americans - ‘Blessing of Anglo-Saxon Protection’
©     This factor responsible for ending slavery and improved health and education of people in colonies
©     Christian Missionaries followed this policy in their efforts to spread Christianity

Chapter 9                  The First World War 1914-1918
©     With the fall of France after the Napoleon, Germany emerge as a great power under Otto von Bismarck (Iron Chancellor). Thus Germany became the pivot of European politics in Europe
The Causes
1)    Rise of Intense Nationalism
©     Germany conquest of the French territories of Alsace – Lorraine in 1871
©     Italy’s ambition over Trieste and Trentino in Austria
©     Naval competition between England and Germany
©     Squabbling by European countries over Asia, Africa and Balkans

2)    Military alliances
©     In October 1879, Germany and Austria – Hungary entered into treaty called Dual Alliance
©     In 1882, when Italy joined the group, it was renamed the Triple Alliance
©     In 1904, England had an entente with France
©     In 1907, England, France and Russia formed the Triple Entente to counter the threat from Triple Alliance

3)    Imperialism
©     Greatness of nations in Europe were judged from their non-European possessions
©     England and France, Holland and Spain had colonies outside Europe
©     Germany attempts failed
©     Competition between Germany and France almost led to a war over Morocco

4)    Military build-up
©     Germany increased her naval power and size of her army
©     Russia expanded her army too
©     France increased compulsory national service from 2 to 3 years
©     Anglo-German naval rivalry
©     Armament race caused hostility and fear

5)    Balkan Crisis
©     Enmity between Austria and Serbia
©     Bosnia and Herzegovina were conquered by Austria in 1908, to stop Serbia from expanding. Austria feared losing Croato-Serbs under Austrian rule to Serbia
©     Russia supported Serbia in their struggles and the Germans supported the Austrians
©     This caused tension

6)    Immediate Cause
©     Archduke Francis Ferdinand was murdered at Sarajevo by a Bosnian student on 28 June 1914
©     Austria accused Serbia and declared war on 28 July 1914
©     Serbians asked for Russian help and the German declared war on Russia
©     France and England also got involved
Events of the War
©     On 14 August 1914, Germans entered Belgium to attack France. When they advance to Paris, French and English troops under General Foch forced Germans to retreat after the battle of the marine in September 1914
©     In 1914, Turkey and in 1915, Bulgaria and Italy entered war by siding Germany
©     2 important events happened in 1917 that profoundly affected the war
a)    Russian revolution
b)    Us entry into war
©     In 1918, Bolsheviks signed the treaty of Brest-Litorsk with German. Russia surrendered Poland and Baltic States to Germany
©     Entry of US stopped Germany expansion
©     In November 1918 Germany surrendered
Peace Conference of Paris 1919
©     Representatives of Allied Power met in Paris in 1919
©     Woodrow Wilson came up with his 14 point peace settlement
©     1st World War with treaty of Versailles in 1919
©     Four other treaties were concluded near Paris
Effects of the 1st World War
1)    Loss Of Territory And Military Power By Germany
©     Several German provinces given to Poland, Denmark and Belgium
©     Alsace-Lorraine returned to France
©     Denied trading rights outside her territory
©     Army reduces to 100,000 men. Use of submarines stopped

2)    Emergence Of New Countries
©     4 countries emerge from Russian Empire – Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
©     From the Austrian-Hungary Empire emerge Czechoslovakia and Serbia
©     Romania and Italy were enlarged
©     From the former Turkish empire emerge Lebanon, Syria, Iraq and Palestine

3)    End Of Monarchy
©     Royal dynasty in Russia, Germany and Austria collapsed
©     Bolshevik revolution of 1917 ended monarchy in Russia. Lenin introduced Communism
©     Greece to abolished monarchy
©     In Turkey, Mustafa Kamal abolished the Sultanate and Caliphate in 1923
4)    League Of Nations
©     League of Nations was formed in 1919 to maintain world peace and to settle disputes between countries amicably
©     Headquarters at Geneva in Switzerland
©     Helped to prevent war to some extent
©     Could not enforce decisions on big powers

5)    Nationalism
©     The right to self-determination introduced by Woodrow took effect
©     India and Burma were the early Asian countries to seek self-determination
©     It also meant the right to choose the type of government
©     Democracy, Communism, Dictatorship

6)    Loss Of Life
©     Ten million soldiers died and another 20 million maimed
©     Another 13 million ordinary people died due to injury, starvation and poor health
©     It dislocated families
©     In term of monetary loss – it was estimated to about 338 million US Dollars

Chapter 10   The Second World War 1939-1945
1)    Treaty of Versailles unfair to Germany
A.    Loss of colonies by Germans
©     Alsace-Lorraine returned to France
©     German coalfields at Saar valley given to France as compensation for 15 years
©     Eupen and Malmedy given to Belgium
©     Northern Schleswig ceded to Denmark
©     City of Memel went to Lithuania and parts of Prussia given to Poland. Mineral rich Silesia also given to Poland
©     Port of Zanzig put under League of Nations
©     Germany forced to surrender her overseas possession
©     Could not trade with outside countries

B.    Military strength reduces
©     Military reduced to 100,000 men
©     Conscription abolished
©     Production of war materials stopped and importation and exportation banned
©     German fleet surrendered to Britain
©     Germany could maintain only a small navy without submarines

C.    Germany held responsible
©     Germans had to pay indemnity of US 33 billion to Allies
©     Germany forced to disarm but others did not. Poles, Czech & French nearly armed
©     German felt punished and humiliated. This made Adolf Hitler repudiate the treaty
©     Italy not given her possessions

2)    Economic Slump 1929-1933
©     Economic conditions in Germany worst
©     Had to pay war indemnity, price of goods soared, unemployment high
©     Many Germans joined Nazi party and supported Hitler in territorial conquest
©     Japan which was also affected by the depression believed in policies of expansion too

3)    Rise Of Totalitarian Governments
©     1922, Benito Mussolini’s Fascist Party took control of Italian government. He began a dictator
©     Conquered Ethiopia (1936), Albania (1939)
©     Hitler’s Nazi party formed government in 1933
©     All political parties banned except Nazi Party
©     Considered German ‘a master-race’
©     In 1935, he repudiated the Treaty of Versailles by enlarging his army
©     He then occupied Rhineland (1936), Austria (1938), Czechoslovakia (1939) and also Poland in the same year
©     This action led Britain and France to declare war on germany

4)    Military Regime In Japan
©     In 1932, military began to control politics. Believed in territorial expansion to secure raw materials and markets. Occupied Manchuria (1932) and attacked China (1937) and Indochina (1941)
©     US, England and France enforce economic sanction against Japan
©     The December 1941, Japan attacked Pearl Harbour
Events of War
©     In Europe, the war began with German attack on Poland in September 1939. In 1940, Norway, Denmark, Holland, Belgium fell to Germans. Air strikes made on England
©     In 1940, Italy, Germany and Japan signed Tripartite Pact (Axis Powers)
©     In 1941, Germans attacked Russia and also British in Libya and Egypt
©     In Far East after Japan’s attacked on Pearl Harbour, US and England declared war on Japan. Germans and Italians declare war on US. Allied forces vs Axis Powers
©     Within 6 months of 1942, Japan conquered South East Asia
©     However from 1943, Allies became victors
©     Russian got back Stalingrad
©     British freed North Africa from Germans
©     Italy fell to Allies, Mussolini arrested. New Italian government made peace with Allies
©     France and Belgium freed. Hitler committed suicide on 30th April 1945
©     US bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki (6th and 9th August 1945). Japan surrendered on 2nd September 1945. War come to an end
Peace Treaties
©     Allies signed peace treaties in Paris with Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria, Rumania, Finland
©     No peace treaty was signed with Germany
©     Germany divided into 4 zones, each zone was occupied by US, French, british and Russian troops
Effects of War
a)    Loss Of Life And Property
©     17 million soldiers and 15 million civilians killed and millions more injured
©     Estimated to have cost US $500 million
b)    Formation Of United Nations In 1945
©     Meant to maintain world peace
©     Also to promote economic and social cooperation among countries
c)     Demand For Independence
©     Many countries became independent of colonial rule after 1945
d)    Cold War
©     Ideological differences between Russia and US led to strained relationship
©     US wanted Democracy. Russian wanted Communism
Chapter 11   The Cold War 1945-1990
Cold War (1945-1990)
©     End of 2nd World War saw, emergence of US and Russia as world powers
©     Differences in political system, economy and national interest caused strained relationship – Cold War
©     Term ‘Cold War’ used by American reporters in 1948 to describe the strained relationship between US and Russia
©     Although there was no direct military clash, the period was marked by military coalitions, arms race, and deployment of troops, espionage, proxy wars, propaganda and technological competition. E.g.Space Race
©     Europe was divided into the Eastern (Communist) and Western (Democratic) Bloc.
Sources of Cold War
©     Political and socioeconomic differences
a)    US – democracy & human rights. Capitalist economy, free from state intervention
b)    Russia – socialist government based on communist ideology, nationalization of economy
Differences arising from Yalta & Potsdam Conference
©     1945 February, Yalta (Crimea) Roosevelt, Stalin & Winston Churchill decided to hold elections in territories under Russian occupied
©     This was because Stalin wanted to introduced communism in these countries to ensure security of Russia
©     All the Potsdam conference (1945), US demanded free elections in the east European countries
©     Stalin refused on grounds these countries would form anti-Russian government
©     So no agreement was reached. This caused stained relationship
Major Developments during Cold War (Europe)
©     May 1945, President Truman ended aid to Russia
©     US refused to recognize governments formed by force against people’s will
©     March 1946, Churchill informed ‘Iron Curtain’ across Europe
©     1947, US gave financial & military aid to Greece and Turkey to shore support against communism
©     Truman Doctrine 1947 promised aid as a means to combat communism
©     1947 – Marshall Plan was introduced to western European countries (aid)
©     By 1948, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, Hungary and Czechoslovakia had communist governments
©     1949, Germany divided into East and West
Developments in the Far East
©     1949, China joined the Communist Bloc after the Kuomintang government of Chiang Kai Shek was overthrown by Mao Tze Tung
©     1950, Korean War broke out with Russia and China supporting North Korea and US supporting South Korea. It ended in 1953 with the Korean peninsula split into 2 Koreas - North and South
©     In 1964, the Vietnam War began with Soviet Union and China supporting North Vietnam and the US supporting South Vietnam. Ended in 1975
©     1954, South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was formed to check the spread of communism

©     1962, US and Russia came close to nuclear war over Cuba
©     Russia had supplied nuclear arms to Fidel Castro of Cuba
©     Kennedy demanded withdrawal of nuclear arms
©     Krushev agreed to withdraw on condition US does not attack Cuba

©     During Cold War, US and Russia avoided open confrontation
©     Both powers however continued their national interest through other means – subversion, spying, propaganda etc
©     Cold War came to an end in 1990 with the establishment of a more transparent communist government in Russia under Mikhail Gorbuchev

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